Developmental state

The term developmental state first referred to the phenomenon of state-led macroeconomic planning in Asia, where the state had autonomous political power as well as control over the economy. The process attracted attention as it emerged that the poor appeared to benefit more than other regions reporting similar economic growth.

A later definition, the democratic developmental state, was introduced to include the elements of democracy. The document collection in this section aims to provide an overview of policy issues and the democratic developmental state, to support those who aim to influence the policy development process.


Related publications

Analyses four factors that could explain low state capacity in Latin America, including high levels of economic inequality.
One in a series of policy briefs drawn from the Poverty and Human Development Report 2009, Government of Tanzania­.
This brief captures a short intervention at the 2005 Public Service Day teleconference organised by the South African Department of Public Service and Administration.

Issue 4 of the newsletter focuses on the issue of violent crime in South Africa. The newsletter aims to stimulate debate around evidence-based policy-making. To contribute to future editions plesae send your submissions to pan@hsrc.ac.za­.

Issue Three of the PAN newsletter focuses on the interface between child-centred evidence and related policy. It features a range of resources that illustrate how child-focused data and research evidence can contribute to and inform better outcomes for children when formulating social policy.
Argues that the current focus on policies ­for poverty alleviation should give way to the global politics of welfare state rebuilding.
A discussion on how ­the public service might be made more accountable, to meet South Africa's growth and development needs.
The main purpose of this handbook is to facilitate the investment process of a public research institute in developing a system (from the simplest to the most sophisticated) of monitoring and evaluation (M&E), and knowledge management (KM) of the impact of research on public policy.
Aims to provide analytical tools and resources to assist analysts and managers with policy development or service-planning projects.
Sets out the key issues to consider when designing and managing evaluations, and the presentation and interpretation of evaluation results. Describes why thinking about evaluation before and during the policy design phase can help to improve the quality of evaluation results without needing to hinder the policy proce­ss.
Call for the development of a course which will improve  organizational capacity to influence public policies in developing countries - deadline 23 January 2011
A case book aimed at ensuring­ that managers are using evidence to make decisions and development stakeholders are able to keep track of progress.
Reviews international good practice for using data in policymaking and develops a conceptual framework for characterising and classifying the different elements of a data strategy for public sector orga­nisations.
A free, online, interactive tool, which maps and graphs more than 175 indicators from the World Bank’s development database.
In the final issue of the PAN newsletter for 2011 ­we look at how the evaluation of government programmes can be invaluable in improving performance and service delivery.
A presentation outlining approaches to achieving research-based­ policies.

This is the first edition of the Policy > Action Network newsletter, From Evidence to Action, published with support from the Programme to Support Pro-Poor Policy Development (PSPPD), a partnership between the Presidency and the Eu­ropean Union.­

A conceptual framework to be used in the production of case studies which identify factors that help or hinder rigorous impact evaluations from influencing policy.
Call for proposals to conduct a series of case studies to identify factors that contribute to or impede evidence from rigorous impact evaluations to influence policy(deadline is 28 February 2011).
­This database provides policymakers and practitioners with easy access to systematic reviews that examine evidence on the effects of social and economic development interventions in low- and middle-income countries. It draws together systematic reviews from a range of sources and covers all sectors.
NDP 2030

The National Development Plan (NDP) aims to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality by 2030. According to the plan, South Africa can realise these goals by drawing on the energies of its people, growing an inclusive economy, building capabilities, enhancing the capacity of the state, and promoting leadership and partnerships throughout society. The popular version in all official languages and two-page illustrated versions are also available.

 

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: 55/2.

Documents South Africa’s economic development plan for the medium term. It is contextualised against the prioritisation of South Africa as a developmental state and targets the development of human resources and the reduction of inequality.

Presidency State of the Nation home page with additional information and links.­
A discussion paper prepared for the African National Congress's 2010 National General Council.
The Presidency has published the National Evaluation Draft Policy Framework for public comment. Comments can be emailed to Dr Ian Goldman at ian@psppd.org.za by 30 September 2011. For enquiries call Dr Ian Goldman at (012) 308 1918. ­­

The 20 Year Review synthesis report published in 2014 was informed by several thematic areas. These are regarded as focal areas to tell the story of South Africa’s progress since democracy. The 21 thematic background papers were written by officials in the Presidency and other government departments using research and other evidence to inform progress, sector developments and challenges still remaining. The body of work that went into developing these papers was extensive with the goal of understanding where we came from in order to inform South Africa’s future trajectory.  Each of the thematic papers was based on background papers which are available at the link above.

Document(s): PDF icon 10year review.pdf

The First Decade of Freedom Review, conducted by government in 2003, assessing how far the new government’s Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) key objectives  which are: meeting basic needs, building the economy, democratising the state and society, developing human resources and nation building. Have been met through the work of its five clusters.

The aim of this report is to take up the National Planning Commission’s offer to engage with the National Development Plan Vision 2030. It ams to provide a constructively critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the policy proposals of the National Development Plan (NDP) and of the underlying diagnostic studies on which it is based.

The study examines the prospects of the rise of a democratic developmental state in Latin American, African and Asian countries, which are collectively referred to in this work as the ‘South’. Within this context, it analyses unresolved critical issues in the state-development discourse such as the re-conceptualization of the developmental state, democratization, elections, embeddedness, indigenous entrepreneurial class, political parties and South-South cooperation.

Citizen participation in policymaking and service design has been debated or attempted, but too infrequently realised. Considers current reform initiatives in the Australian Public Service (APS) and examines the implications of citizen-centric ideals for the processes and structures of government agencies.­
An initiative by the South African Institute of Race Relations which aims to track development trends in South Africa, and will be released on a quarterly basis. ­
Full text of monograph launched at conference on the welfare state, with chapter on the need for a values-led debate on shaping public policy.
A report intended as an initial high-level paper to stimulate discussion amongst New Zealand policy advisors and policy makers.­
The result of a collective process of reflection on the meaning and implications of community protests for local governance. The network’s third publication providing a civil society perspective on the state of local governance. ­
Assesses the progress made by South African cities over the last decade in relation to key development outcomes and whether developmental metropolitan government has had the desired effect in improving socio-economic and environmental conditions.
A concept document arguing that the question of the democratic developmental state should be on the agenda in Africa, preceding a broader research project by the Centre for Policy Studies and the Partners in Development for Research Consulting and Training.
Argues that economic transformation in Africa requires the state to play a central role—using a comprehensive development framework—in planning, articulating and implementing policies aimed at ensuring efficient allocation of resources.
Assesses the progress made by South African cities over the last decade in relation to key development outcomes and reviews strategic problems and opportunities relating to planning and management­
Recommends that African countries adopt a developmental state approach that uses the market as an instrument rather than a sole mechanism for fostering long-term investment, rapid and sustained economic growth, equity ­and social development.
A Cosatu discussion paper which reviews the theoretical discourse around the developmental state and reviews the evolution of central co-ordinating institutions since 1994.
Reviews the changing patterns of science, and scientific collaboration, in order to provide a basis for understanding such ongoing changes. Aims to identify the opportunities and benefits of international collaboration, to consider how they can best be realised, and to initiate a debate on how international scientific collaboration can be harnessed to tackle global problems more effectively.
Examines how South Africa could build a democratic developmental state, drawing on relevant conceptual models and experiences from other countries.
Reflects on Botswana's economic policies and how they reflect aspects of the developmental state, granting the ruling party an enduring fo­rm of legitimacy.
Highlights ten key features of the developmental state growth model by contrasting economic and institutional trends between China (and East Asia) and South Africa.
A concise overview of the progress Africa has made over the previous year in seven areas, namely economic growth, governance, peace and security, social development, food and nutrition security, climate change, and development cooperation and finance. Provides a series of practical recommendations for policy makers.
This think-piece adopts two approaches to determine the extent to which South Africa could be viewed as a developmental state or not.
Working paper on South African ruling African National Congress's (ANC) plans to construct a state that is both developmental and democratic as a political ambition and a moral imperative. ­
Commentary from the South African Civil Society Information Service (Sacsis) that the Zuma administration is attempting to insulate public policy choices from contestation in society, and as a consequence failing to build broader­ policy consensus.­
After World War II East Asia began to industrialise, leading to a seemingly permanent rise in living standards across the region. Reviews implications of economic policies of the developmental state.
Assembled collaboratively over the past year by several South African civil society organisations (CSOs), this report scrutinises the country’s track record in fighting corruption, managing diversity, addressing xenophobia and racism, managing elections, consolidating democracy and upholding the rule of law, as well as confronting social exclusion and effective service delivery. ­­
Examines the global state of adolescents, outlines the challenges they face in health, education, protection and participation, and argues that investing in them now is our best hope of breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty and inequity and laying the foundation for a more peaceful, tolerant and equitable world.
Attempts to illustrate a link between educational development and the formation of developmental states in East Asia. Presents evidence that education systems contributed to nation-building.
This analysis provides new understandings of current concepts of 'globalisation', 'use-oriented' research, 'knowledge society and economy', and 'national system of innovation'.
­This report seeks to focus on the core, critical interventions that will be needed if South Africa’s development objectives are to be ­met.
Reviews the potential role of the developmental state and what state structures and political institutions are required to achieve developed country status.
This report introduces a unique and unprecedented series of data on the state of capacity in Africa. It also examines key issues and challenges confronting in-country and cross-border capacity development.
The third in a series which discusses what needs to be done further in reaching the MDGs,  an abridged version of a much more comprehensive joint Economic Commission for Africa, African Union Commission, and African Development Bank report.

Presentation on building the African development state. Suggests that the real issue is not so much 'building' the African state but making it a more accountable and efficient instrument for addressing the issues that Africans have reason to consider fundamental. Focuses on democratic developmental states:- developmental (in the sense that they facilitate and promote economic growth and structural transformation), democratic (in the sense that they derive their legitimacy through popular participation and electoral process) and socially inclusive (in the sense that they pursue social policies that ensure equitable entitlements of all their citizens to ensure that their capacities and functioning are adequate for a decent inclusion in societal affairs).

Essays based on a conference which aimed to ­encourage and facilitate debate about the ethical basis for policy making.
Paper from the 11th General assembly of the Council For the Development of Social Science in Africa (CODESRIA), Maputo, Mozambique; December 6 – 10, 2005.
A paper from the 2007 Guy Mhone memorial conference on development: Public Sector Reforms in Africa: Retrospect and Prospect, 22–24 August 2007, Zomba, Malawi.
Captures the speakers’ inputs and discussions at this Isandla Institute Development Dialogue.
Paper presented at the UNU-AERC workshop on Institutions and Development in Africa, UNU Headquarters, Tokyo, Japan, October 14-15, 1998.
Presentation from the 30th Africa Association for Public Administration and Management (AAPAM) Annual Roundtable Conference, Accra, Ghana, 6-10 October 2008.
Issues paper discussing the role of the State in African development in order to identify an appropriate set of interventions to enhance the role of the State and other stakeholders in performing the key tasks necessary for economic transformation in Africa.

Presentation from a seminar which reviewed evidence-based policy-making and the potential role of evaluation as a key, and a systematic, source of evidence. Presented by Dr Ian Goldman, Deputy Director General, Evaluation and Research, DPME,­ The Presidency.­

Briefly explores the concepts ‘state’ and ‘civil society’, an overview of development in Africa, the role of the state in development and­ social policy in Southern Africa.
Workshop report where participants were enabled to apply a knowledge synthesis ­method including: choosing a relevant policy for study, analysing it, performing a literature review (in a way that differs from literature reviews on simple interventions) and organising deliberative processes.
A new Facebook forum for a national citizens' dialogue, currently working against xenophobia and planning for ­a National Indaba in September 2010.
This internship offers outstanding graduate-level students the opportunity to acquire direct exposure to IPC-IG’s work as a global forum for policy dialogue and South-South learning on development innovations.
A community of over 1,000 practitioners managing for development results (MfDR) from 37 different African countries and regions across the world.
If you have some ideas on building a better South Africa, please register for and participate in the National Planning Commission (NPC)­ Jam (an online brainstorming event from noon on 28 September until noon on 1 October). Additional information can also be found here. ­
CIPPEC, a leading think tank in Argentina will award 12 scholarships to participate in the third edition of this online training programme developed jointly with Global Development Network (GDN)­ which will start by the end of August 2011.­
Download the second issue of the Policy > Action Network newsletter and email pan@hsrc.ac.za if you would like to make comments or submissions for the next issue.

Consolidation of the State of the Nation and State of the Province addresses prepared by André Viviers, Senior Social Policy Specialist, UNICEF South Africa.

In this first issue of From Evidence to Action for 2012, we look at networks and, specifically, the role they play in changing policy. Our feature article, Getting the most out of policy networks, examines what a network actually is and what makes them effective. Through the example of the Regional Network on Equity in Health in Southern Africa, EQUINET, our case study further explores how to build networks and how they can be used to influence policy. We also find out more about the Policy Action Network, how to manage a Community of Practice. 

Government policy & legislation

NDP 2030

The National Development Plan (NDP) aims to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality by 2030. According to the plan, South Africa can realise these goals by drawing on the energies of its people, growing an inclusive economy, building capabilities, enhancing the capacity of the state, and promoting leadership and partnerships throughout society. The popular version in all official languages and two-page illustrated versions are also available.

 

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: 55/2.

Documents South Africa’s economic development plan for the medium term. It is contextualised against the prioritisation of South Africa as a developmental state and targets the development of human resources and the reduction of inequality.

Presidency State of the Nation home page with additional information and links.­
A discussion paper prepared for the African National Congress's 2010 National General Council.
The Presidency has published the National Evaluation Draft Policy Framework for public comment. Comments can be emailed to Dr Ian Goldman at ian@psppd.org.za by 30 September 2011. For enquiries call Dr Ian Goldman at (012) 308 1918. ­­